Non-POD to variadic functions

Recently I ran into some strange behavior in gcc that caused some minor confusion for me for a few hours until I figured out exactly what was wrong. I'm going to attempt to explain it here, so that maybe someone else will benefit from my lack of understanding about how computers work :-). The problem was exacerbated by the fact that I am compiling a system which has literally thousands of compiler warnings, and without going through and fixing them, there's really no way to manually read them. Since gcc only warns (although I really think this should be an error), this is a miss-able thing that will cause problems if it is ignored. Our working example will be the following code:

#include <stdio.h>

class Foo
    Foo() {}

int main()
  printf("%s\n", Foo());
  return 0;

First, some background. C++ has things which C compilers (and libraries) don't understand, and one of them happens to be non-POD. POD stands for Plain Old Data, and it is basically things without constructors, destructors and methods (in the above example, Foo serves this purpose). printf() is what's known as a variadic function (i.e. a function which can take a variable number of arguments). In C, these functions are written using the stdargs.h header and associated macros. Naturally, the macros in stdargs.h know nothing about non-POD, and thus it is not valid to pass non-POD to a variadic function. What gcc does when you do, though, is rather strange. Consider the following terminal output:

tycho@mittens:~/playground$ g++ variadic.cpp -o variadic
variadic.cpp: In function 'int main()':
variadic.cpp:11: warning: cannot pass objects of non-POD type
'class Foo' through '...'; call will abort at runtime
variadic.cpp:11: warning: format '%s' expects type 'char*', but
argument 2 has type 'int'
tycho@mittens:~/playground$ ./variadic 
Illegal instruction

What's going on here? My first thought was that it was some 32/64-bit nuance that I didn't understand but it turns out that isn't the case. When gcc encounters a variadic function which has been passed non-POD, it generates a warning and a ud2 instruction in place of the call. If (like me) you're forced to ignore all compiler warnings due to the sheer number, you wouldn't see the above warning. Then when you run your binary, it crashes with SIGILL! Why does it crash? From the Intel x86 manual:

[ud2] Generates an invalid opcode. This instruction is provided for software testing to explicitly generate an invalid opcode. The opcode for this instruction is reserved for this purpose. Other than raising the invalid opcode exception, this instruction is the same as the NOP instruction. This instruction's operation is the same in non-64-bit modes and 64-bit mode.

So, the generated binary has a ud2 sitting in it, which guarantees that it will crash with a SIGILL. Why does gcc do this instead of aborting compilation? I have no idea, but it's good to know that this behavior exists so that if you come across it you don't have to spend several hours hunting down what's going on.

Lastly, I'd like to make a plug for IDAPro. I have used it fairly extensively while at UW, and it works very well. It handles large (300MB) binaries well (things are naturally slower, but it's not unbearable), and models the re-writing of static and dynamic linkers for a variety of formats very well. I used it to help me track down this bug.